مبتکر دوره: علیرضا رجبی - کارشناس ارشد حقوق تجاری اقتصادی بین الملل از دانشگاه تهران و کارشناس ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی از واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران می باشد.
این شیوه از بیان مطالب در یادگیری زبان تخصصی، از راحت ترین روشهای یادگیری میباشد که تاکنون در ایران ارائه شده است که البته حاصل سالها مطالعه و تجربه عملی در تجارت بین الملل می باشد.
متون انتخاب شده در این دوره از منابع معتبر بوده و دارای اصالت است.
در صورت مداومت در مطالعه متون و تماشای دقیق فیلم های ارائه شده بصورت ادامه دار، زبان آموز به راحتی می تواند در فعالیت های عملی تجارت بین الملل، آزمون های حقوقی و نیز نگارش قرارداد ها به زبان انگلیسی از آمادگی بسیار بالایی برخوردار گردد.
حقوق مادی و معنوی این اثر متعلق به پدید آورنده آن می باشد و درصورت در اختیار قراردادن این مطالب برای استفاده دیگران نه تنها پدیدآورنده رضایت قلبی ندارد بلکه حق پیگرد قانونی توسط وی محفوظ است.
Documentary collection, also sometimes referred to as bank collection, is a method of payment where the seller’s and buyer’s banks assist by forwarding documents to the buyer against payment or some other obligation, such as acceptance of an enclosed draft or bill of exchange. The basis for this form of payment is that the buyer should either pay or accept the draft before they gain control over the documents that represent the goods.
The role of the banks in documentary collection is purely to present the documents to the buyer, but without the responsibility that they will be honoured by them. The collection contains no guarantee on behalf of the banks, which act only upon the instruction of the seller, but it is nevertheless a demand against the buyer, performed by a collection bank at their domicile, often their own bank. It is, in most cases, but not always as is shown below, a more secure alternative for the seller, compared to trading on open account payment terms.
The collections are often divided into two main groups:
● Documents against payment (D/P) – when the bank notifies the buyer that the documents have arrived and requests them to pay the amount as instructed by the seller’s bank.
● Documents against acceptance (D/A) – when the buyer is requested to accept a term draft (bill of exchange) that accompanies the documents instead of payment. The seller’s risk deteriorates by handing over the documents against a bill of exchange instead of receiving payment and is dependent on the buyer’s ability to pay the bill at a later stage, and the seller has lost the advantage of having control of the documents related to the goods.
The general advantage with this method of payment is that the buyer knows that the goods have been shipped and can examine the related documents before payment or acceptance. From the seller’s perspective, the documents are not placed at the disposal of the buyer until they have paid or accepted the enclosed draft (bill of exchange).
The use of documentary collection could have certain disadvantages for the buyer. Perhaps the most important of these is that there are in most cases no opportunity to examine the goods before payment: the buyer has to rely solely on what can be seen from the documents presented. There are, however, some actions that the buyer can take to help deal with this drawback. The buyer or the buyer’s agent may have the opportunity to inspect the goods before shipment or may use a company specializing in such inspections to do so, as part of the agreement. Such a certificate could then be included in the set of documents sent for collection.
Other ways for the buyer to increase security in connection with documentary collections could be to have the contractual right to postpone payment/acceptance until the goods have arrived and then to have the right to inspect them or to take samples.
It is important that the documents required under a collection are specified in the terms of payment in order to avoid disputes. Documents often used include:
● draft/bill of exchange, issued at sight or as a term bill (usance bill)
● specifications and separate packing or weight lists;
● relevant transport documents;
● certificate of origin;
● other certificates, such as health test or performance certificates;
● inspection certificates, verifying quality or quantity of the goods;
● insurance documents.
The general advantage with this method of payment is that the buyer knows that the goods have been shipped and can examine the related documents before payment or acceptance. From the seller’s perspective, the documents are not placed at the disposal of the buyer until they have paid or accepted the enclosed draft (bill of exchange);
پس از پرداخت محصول در درگاه بانکی شما به لینک دانلود محصول برای شما قابل رویت می باشد و شما می توانید اقدام به دانلود کنید.
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