مبتکر دوره: علیرضا رجبی - کارشناس ارشد حقوق تجاری اقتصادی بین الملل از دانشگاه تهران و کارشناس ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی از واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران می باشد.
این شیوه از بیان مطالب در یادگیری زبان تخصصی، از راحت ترین روشهای یادگیری میباشد که تاکنون در ایران ارائه شده است که البته حاصل سالها مطالعه و تجربه عملی در تجارت بین الملل می باشد.
متون انتخاب شده در این دوره از منابع معتبر بوده و دارای اصالت است.
در صورت مداومت در مطالعه متون و تماشای دقیق فیلم های ارائه شده بصورت ادامه دار، زبان آموز به راحتی می تواند در فعالیت های عملی تجارت بین الملل، آزمون های حقوقی و نیز نگارش قرارداد ها به زبان انگلیسی از آمادگی بسیار بالایی برخوردار گردد.
حقوق مادی و معنوی این اثر متعلق به پدید آورنده آن می باشد و درصورت در اختیار قراردادن این مطالب برای استفاده دیگران نه تنها پدیدآورنده رضایت قلبی ندارد بلکه حق پیگرد قانونی توسط وی محفوظ است.
In practice, every international trade transaction contains an element of financial risk. Purchasing, production and shipment all place a financial burden on the transaction that forces the seller to determine how alternative terms of payment would affect liquidity during its different phases until payment – and how this should be financed. And, if the deal is not settled as intended, an additional financial risk occurs.
One of the major financial risks concerned with international business management is fluctuations in foreign exchange. As currency rate for each country may vary due to various economic factors around the globe it may affect organizations in international business. Another risk associated with the financial crisis is the side effect of political leadership changes occurring in the country.
The real risk also tends to increase with longer and consequently more costly transport distances. Bureaucratic delays in many countries, as well as delays in the banking system, will have the same result – the final payment to the seller will not be made as anticipated according to the contract.
The financial risks are generally intimately connected to the structure of the terms of payment. The safer they can be made, the more the financial risk will automatically be reduced, the timing of the payments will be more accurate and the liquidity aspect of the transaction better assessed – in fact, the very essence of cash management.
Methods of payment
How payment is made depends on the role of the banks involved and affects the security offered to both buyer and seller. ‘Different methods of payment’, payments can, in principle, be divided into two main categories: ‘clean payments’ and ‘documentary payments’. Clean payments (bank transfers and bank or corporate cheques) are primarily used when the parties have agreed on open account payment terms, meaning that the buyer must pay according to the contract after receiving the seller’s invoice specifying the payment date. With the absence of any other security for payment, clean payments (mostly bank transfers) are regularly used within industrialized or neighbouring countries or in conjunction with other security, for example credit insurance. Documentary payments are used in situations other than those mentioned above, when the need for additional security is greater, whether the underlying reason is the buyer or their country, the nature or size of the individual transaction or the route or length of transport. The documentary payments are divided into documentary collections (bank collections), when the buyer has to pay or accept a bill of exchange to obtain access to the documents for collection, or L/Cs where the seller is also guaranteed payment if the documents presented are in accordance with the terms of the L/C.
Methods of payment can be categorized in different ways, depending on the purpose. This is often based on the commercial aspect seen from the exporter’s perspective in terms of security. In security order, the basic methods of payment could then be listed as follows:
● cash in advance before delivery (bank remittance, cheque payment);
● letter of credit (L/C) (also called documentary credit).;
● documentary collection (also called bank collection);
● bank transfer (based on open account trading terms);
● other payment or settlement procedures, such as barter or counter-trade.
Seen from a more practical point of view of how the payment is actually executed, and the involvement of the commercial parties and the banks, there are, in principle, only four basic methods of payment that are used today in connection with monetary settlement of international trade (apart from e-commerce and barter and counter-trade transactions).
An LC is a financial document provided by a third-party (with no direct interest in the transaction), mostly a bank or a financial institution, that guarantees the payment of funds for goods and services to the seller once the seller submits the required documents. A letter of credit has three important elements – the beneficiary/seller who is the recipient of the LC, the buyer/applicant who buys the goods or services and the issuing bank that issues the LC on the buyer’s request. At times, there is an involvement of another bank as an advising bank that advises the beneficiary.
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