زبان تخصصی حقوق تجارت بین الملل - درس هفتم

زبان تخصصی حقوق تجارت بین الملل - درس هفتم


قیمت : 250,000 ریال
دسته بندی : ویدئو



خرید محصول


Section 7

درس هفتم زبان تخصصی تجارت بین الملل و حقوق تجارت بین الملل

اولین و راحت ترین شیوه یادگیری زبان تخصصی تجارت بین الملل و حقوق تجارت بین الملل 

مبتکر دوره: علیرضا رجبی - کارشناس ارشد حقوق تجاری اقتصادی بین الملل از دانشگاه تهران و کارشناس ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی از واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران می باشد.

این شیوه از بیان مطالب در یادگیری زبان تخصصی، از راحت ترین روشهای یادگیری میباشد که تاکنون در ایران ارائه شده است که البته حاصل سالها مطالعه و تجربه عملی در تجارت بین الملل می باشد.

متون انتخاب شده در این دوره از منابع معتبر بوده و دارای اصالت است.

در صورت مداومت در مطالعه متون و تماشای دقیق فیلم های ارائه شده بصورت ادامه دار، زبان آموز به راحتی می تواند در فعالیت های عملی تجارت بین الملل، آزمون های حقوقی و نیز نگارش  قرارداد ها به زبان انگلیسی از آمادگی بسیار بالایی برخوردار گردد. 

متن ذیل مکمل فایل ویدئویی است که میبایست برای فهم و یادگیری بهتر مطلب ارائه شده در فیلم، حتما چندین بار خوانده شود و حداقل سه تا پنج بار از روی آن نوشته شود. که البته بسته به سطح افراد میتواند مقدار مطالعه و نگارش آن کمتر یا بیشتر باشد.

 

حقوق مادی و معنوی این اثر متعلق به پدید آورنده آن می باشد و درصورت در اختیار قراردادن این مطالب برای استفاده دیگران نه تنها پدیدآورنده رضایت قلبی ندارد بلکه حق پیگرد قانونی توسط وی محفوظ است.

Section 7

Adverse business risks

Adverse business risks include all business practices of a negative nature, which are not only common but also almost endemic in some parts of the world. This could have serious consequences for the individual transaction, but also for the general business and financial standing of the seller, as well as their moral reputation. We are, of course, referring to all sorts of corrupt practices that flourish in many countries, particularly in connection with larger contracts or projects: bribery, money laundering and a variety of facilitation payment.

If bribery is generally a technique to press the seller for undue rewards, money laundering often has the opposite purpose, which is to invite the seller to do a deal that may on the face of it seem very advantageous, but where the true intention is to disguise or conceal the actual origin of the money involved. It covers criminal activities, corruption and breaches of financial sanctions. It includes the handling, or aiding the handling, of assets, knowing that they are the result of crime, terrorism or illegal drug activities.

Bribery, money laundering and any other form of corrupt behaviour are bad for business; they distort the normal trade patterns and give unfair advantages to those involved in them. They are also extremely harmful for the countries themselves, owing to the damage they cause to the often fragile social fabric; they destroy the economy and are strongly counterproductive for trade and all forms of foreign investments into the country.

In the long run, such practices also prevent social and economic stability and development, and they have an especially negative impact on the most disadvantaged parts of the population.

In general terms, a suspicious transaction is one that is outside the normal range of transactions from the seller’s point of view, in particular in relation to new customers or where an old customer changes transaction structure in an unusual way. It can include:

● unusual payment settlements;

● unusual transfer instructions;

● secretiveness;

● rapid movements in and out of accounts;

● numerous transfers;

● complicated accounts structures.

The money laundering process in three key stages:

1.Placement

The first stage of money laundering is known as ‘placement’, whereby ‘dirty’ money is placed into the legal, financial systems. This is where the criminal money is ‘washed’ and disguised by being placed into a legitimate financial system, such as in offshore accounts.

2.Layering

The second stage in the money laundering process is referred to as ‘layering’. This is a complex web of transactions to move money into the financial system, usually via offshore techniques. Once the funds have been placed into the financial system, the criminals make it difficult for authorities to detect laundering activity. Its purpose is to create multiple financial transactions to conceal the original source and ownership of the illegal funds.

3.Integration

The third of the stages of money laundering is ‘integration’. The ‘dirty’ money is now absorbed into the economy, for instance via real estate. At this stage, it is very difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal wealth.

It is important to note that, in reality, there is often an overlap in these three stages of money laundering.

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